and learning represents a concept that involves connecting
content that students are learning with the context in which
that content could be used. Connecting content with context
is an important
part of bringing meaning to the learning process.
For that connection
to take place, a variety of teaching approaches may be used. Over
the years, a body of literature has emerged based on research
and development on how people learn. The following teaching approaches
include context as a critical component and are found in the literature
on teaching and learning:
and learning emphasizes higher-level thinking, knowledge transfer,
collecting, analyzing, and synthesizing information and data
from multiple sources and viewpoints" (Howey, 1998). Of critical
importance is that the above approaches be used at the student's
level of learning, that the environment be established to support
self-regulated learning, that culturally-relevant
pedagogy be applied, that knowledge about multiple
intelligences be considered, and that appropriate authentic
assessment be included.]*
This definition/explanation of Contextual Teaching and Learning
is taken from CTL
website at Bowling Green State University by Berns, R. .G. & Erickson,
P. M. (2000).
is an instructional approach that uses real-world problems as
a context for students to learn critical thinking and problem-solving
skills, and to acquire knowledge of the essential concepts of
in Mathematics: What a Concept!
How do we ensure that our students have the necessary skills
to succeed in the workplace of the 21st century?
We can't predict the future, but we will always have problems
to solve. This session shares an innovative approach to teaching
and evaluating problem solving and critical thinking skills
in an arithmetic class.
The NEW Applied Math Curriculum: A Change in Pedagogy.
for Problem-Based Learning
The Center for Problem-Based Learning (CPBL) was established
by the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy to engage in
PBL research, information exchange, teacher training, and curriculum
development in K-16 educational settings.
Title: Examining How Middle School Students Use Problem-Based
Problem-based, inquiry learning is a model of instruction that
promotes critical thinking by presenting students with interesting
and puzzling problems to solve. The problem solving process
involves observing developing and testing predictions, collecting
and organizing data and formulating concepts and explanations.
The model works best when the problem presented promotes genuine
inquiry and the materials used provides valuable instruction.
It is important for students to experience the discovery of
new knowledge, therefore the problem presented should be based
on discoverable ideas.
This site links to other sites that provide information about
using technology and problem-based Learning in the classroom.
This list should be a starting place for information about problem-based
learning. Also, this site includes examples of how teachers
at Ford Middle School have integrated the use of technology
and problem-based learning into the curriculum.
This site describes steps involved in designing problem-based
Learning for the classroom.
learning is an instructional approach that uses small groups so
that students work together to maximize their own and each other's
Learning In The Classroom: The Importance of a Collaborative
Environment for Computer-Based Education
Cooperative behavior of students playing an educational computer
game was investigated. The combination of gender and whether
one or two computers were present significantly affected the
level of achievement as measured by the number of puzzles completed
in the game. Female/Female pairs playing on two computers, on
average, completed less puzzles than any other pairs in any
other condition. Differences were also observed for gender pairs
sharing control of the mouse while playing on a single computer.
Male/Male pairs had a higher number and percentage of refusals
to give up control of the mouse.
on Cooperative Learning and Achievement: What We Know, What
We Need to Know
This research offers Four Major Theoretical Perspectives on
Cooperative Learning and Achievement: Motivational Perspectives,
Social Cohesion Perspectives, Cognitive Perspectives, Developmental
Perspectives and Cognitive Elaboration Perspectives.
is a comprehensive approach to classroom learning designed to
engage student investigation of authentic problems, including
an in-depth study of a topic worth learning.
Service learning is
an instructional method that combines community service with a
structured school-based opportunity for reflection about that
service, emphasizing the connections between service experiences
and academic learning.
CBL works with businesses and social service organizations to
provide students with internships in the community as a part
of their academic experience. CBL provides the opportunity for
faculty interested in K-12 education to participate in school
reform and curriculum development discussions.
Learning: A Foundation for Meaningful Educational Reform
This topical synthesis summarizes what we have learned over
the past 20 years about various community-based learning programs
and describes how community-based learning can serve as an important
contribution to educational reform in the future.
is an instructional approach in which students use the context
of the workplace to learn content of school-based courses and
how that content is used in the workplace.
A report on educators in the workplace. This page consists of
feedback on summer educator externships. The externships provided
teachers an opportunity to see what is really happening in business/industry
so they could then adjust their curriculum as necessary. In
turn, this will help students to become more excited about career
opportunities thus spurring more interest in job shadowing and
then specific training to qualify for particular occupations