EMAT 8990
by
Doug Westmoreland
Cyclic Quadrilaterals
(Figure 1)
Given quadrilateral ABCD. (figure 1 above)
Consider the following: The four angle-bisectors of a quadrilateral always determine a cyclic quadrilateral.
Quick check: a = 180 - ( x + t ) and b = 180 - ( y + z )
therefore a + b = 360 - ( x + y + z + t )
= 360 - 180
= 180
So, quadrilateral EFGH is a cyclic quadrilateral.
Click here for a GSP sketch of a cyclic quadrilateral that you can drag around and investigate.
Try dragging the vertices of quadrilateral ABCD so that the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. What do you think about the cyclic quadrilateral that is formed? If it is a special type of quadrilateral, can you prove the special case?
Further investigations on the cyclic quadrilateral
Consider this:
The four lines, each drawn from the midpoint of a side of a cyclic quadrilateral perpendicular to the opposite side, are concurrent. Can you prove this? Are there any special cases to consider?
Click here for a GSP model to investigate.
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Consider this:
Brahmagupta's Theorem: In a cyclic quadrilateral having perpendicular diagonals, the perpendicular to a side from the point of intersection of the diagonals always bisects the opposite side.
Note: Brahmagupta was a Hindu mathematician 628 A.D. The position of the anticenter, the point of intersection of the diagonals of the cyclic quadrilateral, in the particular case of a cyclic quadrilateral with perpendicular diagonals was the discovery of Brahmagupta.
Click here for a GSP model to investigate.
Can you prove Brahmagupta's Theorem? Click here for a hint.
Investigations on your own
Use GSP to make sketches of the following situations and see if you can prove them.
In a cyclic quadrilateral with perpendicular diagonals, the distance from the circumcenter to a side is just half the opposite side.
Let the diagonals of cyclic quadrilateral ABCD meet at M and let their midpoints be E and F. Then the orthocenter of triangle EMF is the anticenter T of ABCD.
Let P and Q be the midpoints of a pair of opposite sides, say AB and CD. The centroid K of ABCD is not only the midpoint of PQ but is also the midpoint of the segment EF joining the midpoints of the diagonals.
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