James W. Wilson and BJ Jackson

University of Georgia

It has now become a rather standard exercise, with availble
technology, to construct graphs to consider the equation

and to overlay several graphs of

for different values of a, b, or c as the other two are held
constant. From these graphs discussion of the patterns for the
roots of

can be followed. For example, if we set

for b = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, and overlay the graphs, the
following picture is obtained of the graphs in the xy plane.

We can discuss the "movement" of a parabola as b
is changed. The parabola always passes through the same point
on the y-axis ( the point (0,1) with this equation). For b <
-2 the parabola will intersect the x-axis in two points with positive
x values (i.e. the original equation will have two real roots,
both positive). For b = -2, the parabola is tangent to the x-axis
and so the original equation has one real and positive root at
the point of tangency. For -2 < b < 2, the parabola does
not intersect the x-axis -- the original equation has no real
roots. Similarly for b = 2 the parabola is tangent to the x-axis
(one real negative root) and for b > 2, the parabola intersets
the x-axis twice to show two negative real roots for each b.

Now consider the locus of the vertices of the set of parabolas
graphed from

Show that the locus is the parabola

**Generalize.
**

When overlaying the inverse, the inverse intersects the graphs at the minimums or the verticies of the other parabolas. This intersection is coordinate of the vertex.

Consider again the equation

Now graph this relation in the xb plane. To graph in the xb
plane, we change the y-axis into a b-axis. To make this work in
a graphing calculator one can use n = by. We get the following
graph.

Click **here **for a
movie that shows what happens to the graph when n varies from
-10 to 10.

If we take any particular value of b, say b = 3, and overlay
this equation on the graph we add a line parallel to the x-axis.
If it intersects the curve in the xb plane the intersection points
correspond to the roots of the original equation for that value
of b. We have the following graph.

For each value of b we select, we get a horizontal line. It is clear on a single graph that we get two negative real roots of the original equation when b > 2, one negative real root when b = 2, no real roots for -2 < b < 2, One positive real root when b = -2, and two positive real roots when b < -2.

Click **here** for a movie
that shows how the number of solutions vary as n varies.

Consider the case when c = - 1 rather than + 1.

Here again we get a hyperbola that would have the same asymptotes as when c = 1. The difference is that there are always two roots with one of the roots being positive and one of the roots being negative.. There is never an instance when c=-1 that has no solutions.

In the following example the equation

is considered. If the equation is graphed in the xc plane, it is easy to see that the curve will be a parabola. For each value of c considered, its graph will be a line crossing the parabola in 0, 1, or 2 points -- the intersections being at the roots of the orignal equation at that value of c. In the graph, the graph of c = 1 is shown.

Click **here** for a
movie of the graphs of the parabolas for n = -10 to 10.

The equation

will have two negative roots -- approximately -0.2 and -4.8.

There is one value of c where the equation will have only 1 real root -- at c = 6.25. For c > 6.25 the equation will have no real roots and for c < 6.25 the equation will have two roots, both negative for 0 < c < 6.25, one negative and one 0 when c = 0 and one negative and one positive when c < 0.

Click **here** for a movie
that illustractes the solutions for n=-10 to 10.

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